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Friday, 2 February 2018

Introduction to the term "Building"
A Building can be defined as an assemblage that is firmly attached to the ground and that provides total or ne

Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, to land prices, ground conditions, specific uses and aesthetic reasons.
Buildings serve several societal needs – primarily as shelter from weather, security, living space, privacy, to store belongings, and to comfortably live and work. A building as a shelter represents a physical division of the
human habitat (a place of comfort and safety) and the outside (a place that at times may be harsh and harmful).
Ever since the first cave paintings, buildings have also become objects or canvasses of much artistic expression. In recent years, interest in recent years, interest in
sustainable planning and building practices has also become an intentional part of the design process of many new buildings.

Types of Building
Single-family residential buildings are most often called houses or homes . Residential buildings containing more than one dwelling unit are called a
duplex , apartment building to differentiate them from 'individual' houses. A condominium is an apartment that the occupant owns rather than rents. Houses may also be built in pairs (semi-detached ), in terraces where all but two of the houses have others either side; apartments may be built round courtyards or as rectangular blocks surrounded by a piece of ground of varying sizes. Houses which were built as a single dwelling may later be divided into apartments or bedsitters; they may also be converted to another use e.g. an office or a shop.
Building types may range from huts to multimillion-dollar high-rise apartment blocks able to house thousands of people. Increasing settlement density in buildings (and smaller distances between buildings) is usually a response to high ground prices resulting from many people wanting to live close to work or similar attractors. Other common building materials are brick, concrete or combinations of either of these with stone.
Residential buildings have different names for their use depending if they are seasonal include holiday cottage (vacation home) or timeshare ; size such as a cottage or great house ; value such as a shack or mansion ; manner of construction such as a log home or mobile home ; proximity to the ground such as earth sheltered house,
stilt house , or tree house . Also if the residents are in need of special care such as a nursing home, orphanage or
prison ; or in group housing like
barracks or dormitories .
Historically many people lived in communal buildings called
longhouses , smaller dwellings called
pit-houses and houses combined with barns sometimes called housebarns .
Buildings are defined to be substantial, permanent structures so other dwelling forms such as
houseboats , yurts , and motorhomes are dwellings but not buildings.
A multi-storey is a building that has multiple floors. Sydney is a city with many multi story buildings: One suburb which has been notorious for poor construction is Lane Cove. Many overseas investors have been sucked in a and bought poorly built buildings.
Sometimes a group of inter-related (and possibly inter-connected) builds are referred to as a complex – for example a housing complex , [10]
educational complex , [11] hospital complex , etc.

History of the first Building on Earth

A report by Shinichi Fujimura of a shelter built 500 000 years ago[6] is doubtful since Fujimura was later found to have faked many of his findings. [7] Supposed remains of huts found at the Terra Amata site in Nice purportedly dating from 200 000 to 400 000 years ago [8] have also been called into question. (See Terra Amata .) There is clear evidence of home building from around 18 000 BC. [9] Buildings became common during the Neolithic.

A reconstruction of a pit-house type dwelling made with mammoth bones
Neolithic, also known as the New Stone Age, was a time period roughly from 9000 BC to 5000 BC named because it was the last period of the age before wood working began. The tools available were made from natural materials including bone, antler, hide, stone, wood, grasses, animal fibers, and the use of water. These tools were used by people to cut such as with the hand axe, chopper, adze, and celt. Also to scrape, chop such as with a flake tool, pound, pierce, roll, pull, leaver, and carry.

Building materials included bones such as mammoth ribs, hide, stone, metal, bark, bamboo, clay, lime plaster, and more. For example, the first bridges made by humans were probably just wooden logs placed across a stream and later timber trackways. In addition to living in caves and rock shelters, the first buildings were simple shelters, tents like the Inuit's tupiq, and huts sometimes built as pit-houses meant to suit the basic needs of protection from the elements and sometimes as fortifications for safety such as the crannog. Built self-sufficiently by their inhabitants rather than by specialist builders, using locally available materials and traditional designs and methods which together are called vernacular architecture.

The very simplest shelters, tents, leave no traces. Because of this, what little we can say about very early construction is mostly conjecture and based on what we know about the way nomadic hunter-gatherers and herdsmen in remote areas build shelters today. The absence of metal tools placed limitations on the materials that could be worked, but it was still possible to build quite elaborate stone structures with ingenuity using dry stone walling techniques such as at Skara Brae in Scotland, Europe's most complete Neolithic village. The first mud bricks, formed with the hands rather than wooden moulds, belong to the late Neolithic period and were found in Jericho. One of the largest structures of this period was the Neolithic long house. In all cases of timber framed and log structures in these very early cultures, only the very lowest parts of the walls and post holes are unearthed in archaeological excavations, making reconstruction of the upper parts of these buildings largely conjectural.

Neolithic architecture ranges from the tent to the megalith (an arrangement of large stones) and rock-cut architecture which are frequently temples, tombs, and dwellings. The most remarkable Neolithic structure in Western Europe is the iconic megalith known as construction and include massive sandstone lintels which were located on supporting uprights by means of mortise and tenon joints; the lintels themselves being end-jointed by the use of tongue and groove joints.[3] There is also evidence of prefabrication of the stonework; the symmetrical geometric arrays of stone clearly indicate that the builders of Stonehenge had mastered sophisticated surveying methods.[4] Neolithic villages large enough to have rural and urban features are called proto-cities to distinguish them from cities beginning with Eridu.

Buolding Tools of early  days
 hand axe
A Neolithic stone axe with a wooden handle.
A sickle for harvesting crops and thatching materials.
Various bone tools from China
Bone hammer from the Linear Pottery Culture
A chisel made of bone
A sledge for moving heavy materials.
A stone drill

arly total shelter for machines, processing equipment , performance of human activities, storage of human possessions , or any combination of these.


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